Selected References to Peer-Reviewed Scientific Research on Driving

indicates Top Ten papers of especial interest

Backman, J., Häkkinen, K., Ylinen, J., Häkkinen, A., & Kyröläinen, H. (2005). Neuromuscular Performance Characteristics of Open-wheel and Rally drivers. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 19(4), 777-784.

Baur, H., Müller, S., Hirschmüller, A., Huber, G., & Mayer, F. (2006). Reactivity, Stability, and Strength Performance Capacity in Motor Sports. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 40(11), 906-911.

Bernardi, G., Ricciardi, E., Sani, L., Gaglianese, A., Papasogli, A., Ceccarelli, R., … & Pietrini, P. (2013). How Skill Expertise Shapes the Brain Functional Architecture: an fMRI Study of Visuo-spatial and Motor Processing in Professional Racing-car and Naïve Drivers. PloS ONE, 8(10), e77764

* Bernardi, G., Cecchetti, L., Handjaras, G., Sani, L., Gaglianese, A., Ceccarelli, R., … & Pietrini, P. (2014). It’s not all in your car: functional and structural correlates of exceptional driving skills in professional racers. Frontiers in human neuroscience8, 888, 1-12.

Brown, J.W.H, Stanton, N.A. & Revell, K.A. (2020). The Evolution of Steering Wheel Design in Motorsport. In: P.M. Salmon, S. McLean, C. Dallat, … & A. Hulme (eds.): Human Factors and Ergonomics in Sport, CRC Press.

Crundall, E., Crundall, D., & Stedmon, A. W. (2012). Negotiating left-hand and right-hand bends: A motorcycle simulator study to investigate experiential and behaviour differences across rider groups. PLoS One7(1), e29978.

Ferguson, D.P. (ed.) (2019) The Science of Motorsport. New York: Routledge.

Fuchs, F., Song1, Y., Kaufmann, E., Scaramuzza, D. & Durr, P. (2020). Super-Human Performance in Gran Turismo Sport Using Deep Reinforcement Learning arXiv:2008.07971v1 [cs.AI]

M. Jaritz, R. de Charette, M. Toromanoff, E. Perot, and F. Nashashibi. End-to-End Race Driving with Deep Reinforcement Learning. In 2018 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), pages 2070–2075, May 2018. doi:10.1109/ICRA.2018.8460934.

Kujala, T., Mäkelä, J., Kotilainen, I. & Tokkonen, T. (2015). The Attentional Demand of Automobile Driving Revisited. Human Factors, 58 (1), 163 – 180. doi: 10.1177/0018720815595901

Kücükdurmaz, F. (2012). Driver as a High Level Athlete. In: M.N. Doral et al. (eds.), Sports Injuries. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-15630-4_149

Land, M. F. (1992). Predictable Eye-head Coordination during Driving. Nature, 359, 318-320.

Land, M. F., & Tatler, B. W. (2001). Steering with the head: The Visual Strategy of a Racing Driver. Current Biology, 11(15), 1215-1220.

* Lappi, O. (2015). The Racer’s Brain: How Domain Expertise is Reflected in the Neural Substrates of DrivingFrontiers in Human Neuroscience, 9:635. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2015.00635

Lappi, O. (2018). The Racer’s Mind—How Core Perceptual-Cognitive Expertise Is Reflected in Deliberate Practice Procedures in Professional MotorsportFrontiers in Psychology, 12, 1294. 1-20. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01294

Lappi O, Rinkkala P, Pekkanen J (2017) Systematic Observation of an Expert Driver’s Gaze Strategy – An On-road Case Study. Frontiers in Psychology, doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00620

Lappi, O., Pekkanen, J., Rinkkala, P. et al. (2020). Humans use Optokinetic Eye Movements to Track Waypoints for SteeringScientific Reports, 10, 4175. doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-60531-3

Lappi, O. (2016). Eye Movements in the Wild: Oculomotor Events, Gaze Behavior and Frames of Reference. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 69, 49–68. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2016.06.006

* Lappi,. O. & Mole, C.D. (2018). Visuomotor Control, Eye Movements, and Steering: A Unified Approach for Incorporating Feedback, Feedforward, and Internal Models. Psychological Bulletin, 144(10), 981-1001. doi:10.1037/bul0000150

Lappi, O. (2014). Future Path and Tangent Point Models in the Visual Control of Locomotion in Curve Driving. Journal of Vision, 14(12), 1–22. doi 10.1167/14.12.21

Pekkanen, J., Lappi, O., Rinkkala, P., Tuhkanen, S., Frantsi, R. & Summala, H. (2018). A Computational Model for Driver’s Cognitive State, Visual Perception and Intermittent Attention in a Distracted Car
Following Task
Royal Society Open Science. 5: 180194. doi: 10.1098/rsos.180194

* Lima, I. R., Haar, S., Di Grassi, L., & Faisal, A. A. (2020). Neurobehavioural signatures in race car driving: a case study. Scientific reports10(1), 1-9.

Macadam, C. C. (2003). Understanding and modeling the human driver. Vehicle System Dynamics,40, 101–134. doi: 10.1076/vesd.

McRuer, D. T., Allen, R. W., Weir, D. H., & Klein, R. H. (1977). New Results in Driver Steering Control Models. Human Factors, 19, 381–397. doi: 10.1177/001872087701900406

Michon, J. A. (1985). A critical view of driver behavior models: what do we know, what should we do?. In Human behavior and traffic safety (pp. 485-524). Springer, Boston, MA.

Navarro, J., Reynaud, E., & Osiurak, F. (2018). Neuroergonomics of car driving: A critical meta-analysis of neuroimaging data on the human brain behind the wheel. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews95, 464-479.

Nash, C. J., Cole, D. J., & Bigler, R. S. (2016). A review of human sensory dynamics for application to models of driver steering and speed control. Biological Cybernetics, 110(2–3), 91–116. doi: 10.1007/s00422-016-0682-x

* Potkanowicz, E.S. & Mendel, R.W. (2013). The Case for Driver Science in Motorsport: A Review and Recommendations. Sports Medicine. DOI 10.1007/s40279-013-0040-2

Potkanowicz, E.S. (2019). The Physiological Stress of Automobile Racing. In: D.P. Ferguson (ed.) The Science of Motorsport. Routledge.

Reid, M. B., & Lightfoot, J. T. (2019). The Physiology of Auto Racing. Medicine and science in sports and exercise51(12), 2548-2562.

Remonda, A., Veas, E., Luzhnica, G. (2021). Comparing driving behavior of humans and autonomous driving in a professional racing simulator. PLoS ONE 16(2): e0245320 doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0245320

Senders, J. W., Kristofferson, A. B., Levison, W. H., Dietrich, C. W., & Ward, J. L. (1967). The attentional demand of automobile driving. Highway Research Record, (195).

Sharp, R. S., & Peng, H. (2011). Vehicle dynamics applications of optimal control theory. Vehicle System Dynamics, 49, 1073–1111. doi: 10.1080/00423114.2011.586707

van Leeuwen, P.M., de Groot, S., Happee, R. & de Winter. J.C.F. (2017). Differences between Racing and Non-racing Drivers: A Simulator Study Using Eye-tracking. PLoS ONE, 12(11): e0186871. doi: 10.4121/uuid:9ab22c4c-1c68-4838-a752-e4ba4ddeec07

Watkins, E.S. (2006). The Physiology and Pathology of Formula One Grand Prix Motor Racing. Clinical Neurosurgery, 53, 145-152.

Extended End Notes

Extended endnotes will be posted online. These will expand on more technical aspects of the book, and give additional technical definitions, scientific details and references into relevant research. They cover topics in vehicle dynamics and driving technique, cognitive driver modelling, and neuroscience.

Photo credits: SciePro, Veronica Louro /